Research Article| Volume 46, ISSUE 3, 101839, June 2023

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Health-related quality of life for children using orthokeratology (OK), peripheral lenslet designed (PLD) and single-vision (SV) spectacles: based on Child Health Utility 9 Dimensions (CHU9D)

Published:April 04, 2023DOI:



      This study investigated the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among children with myopia who used orthokeratology (OK), peripheral lenslet designed (PLD), and single-vision (SV) spectacles.


      This cross-sectional study was conducted between February of 2021 and August of 2022. It involved 211, 231, and 206 respondents with OK, PLD, and SV spectacle lenses, respectively. The HRQoL was presented as utility values using a general preference-based Child Health Utility-nine Dimensions (CHU9D) questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis and nonparametric hypothesis testing were used to compare the HRQoL in the OK, PLD, and SV groups.


      Of the 648 respondents, the average utility scores was 0.936 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.929–0.943). Children who wore the PLD spectacles had a significantly higher utility scores (0.955, 95 % CI: 0.946–0.963) than those who wore the SV spectacles (0.926, 95 % CI: 0.913–0.939) and the OK lenses (0.925, 95 % CI: 0.913–0.937) (p < 0.01). The PLD spectacle wearers were less likely to be worried, sad, tired, or annoyed than those who wore OK and SV spectacles (P < 0.05). Self-reported improved eyesight and lessened eye pain and discomfort from myopia correction using PLD spectacles had higher utility values (P < 0.05).


      The PLD spectacles had a significantly higher HRQoL than the OK and SV spectacles among children. Having better eyesight and less eye pain/discomfort from myopia correction could improve the HRQoL of children. This data indicates that PLD spectacles may be considered for myopia management in children and adolescents.


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