Advertisement

Analysis of corneal tomography in select Black and LatinX children

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral and often asymmetric disease which can progress to corneal thinning and protrusion. Keratoconus in children appears to be more aggressive than in adults. Research on pediatric keratoconus is limited, and treatments rely on research and experience in adult populations. The current study aimed to provide an analysis on the distribution of the corneal tomography measurements in an underserved, Black and LatinX, primarily low-income pediatric population.

      Methods

      This was a prospective study approved by the Illinois College of Optometry’s IRB. A total of 2133 children, presented to a school-based vision clinic within the Chicago Public Schools, were included in the analysis and were classified into three age groups: 3–6 years, 7–12 years, and 13–18 years. Four specific tomography measurements were obtained from the Pentacam (BAD Final D, ART-Max, I-S Ratio, and Thinnest Point Asymmetry).

      Results

      The mean front corneal astigmatism of the study cohort was −1.39D ± 1.45. Tomography indices means were 0.95 ± 0.74 for BAD Final D, 457.34 ± 94.83 for ART-Max, 0.01 ± 0.68 for I-S ratio, and 9.60 ± 25.55 for Thinnest Point Asymmetry. A statistically significant difference was observed among age groups for BAD Final D (p < 0.001), ART-Max (p < 0.001) and Thinnest Point Asymmetry (p = 0.006).

      Conclusion

      This study provided the first set of normative data for a pediatric population on the four tomography measurements, offering a reference for potential diagnosis of keratoconus for Black and LatinX children. Further study could include evaluation of additional races along with a comparison with the adult data, which will provide guidance on evaluating the current keratoconus diagnosis criteria to aid early diagnosis of keratoconus in the pediatric population.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Rabinowitz Y.S.
        • Rasheed K.
        • Yang H.
        • Elashoff J.
        Accuracy of ultrasonic pachymetry and videokeratography in detecting keratoconus.
        J Cataract Refract Surg. 1998; 24: 196-201
        • Davidson A.E.
        • Hayes S.
        • Hardcastle A.J.
        • Tuft S.J.
        The pathogenesis of keratoconus.
        Eye (Lond). 2014; 28: 189-195
        • Gomes J.A.P.
        • Tan D.
        • Rapuano C.J.
        • Belin M.W.
        • Ambrósio R.
        • Guell J.L.
        • et al.
        Global consensus on keratoconus and ectatic diseases.
        Cornea. 2015; 34: 359-369
        • Kennedy R.H.
        • Bourne W.M.
        • Dyer J.A.
        A 48-year clinical and epidemiologic study of keratoconus.
        Am J Ophthalmol. 1986; 101: 267-273
        • Godefrooij D.A.
        • de Wit G.A.
        • Uiterwaal C.S.
        • Imhof S.M.
        • Wisse R.P.L.
        Age-specific Incidence and Prevalence of Keratoconus: A Nationwide Registration Study.
        Am J Ophthalmol. 2017; 175: 169-172
        • Krachmer J.H.
        • Feder R.S.
        • Belin M.W.
        Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders.
        Surv Ophthalmol. 1984; 28: 293-322
        • Perez-Straziota C.
        • Gaster R.N.
        • Rabinowitz Y.S.
        Corneal Cross-Linking for Pediatric Keratcoconus Review.
        Cornea. 2018; 37: 802-809
        • Mazzotta C.
        • Traversi C.
        • Baiocchi S.
        • Bagaglia S.
        • Caporossi O.
        • Villano A.
        • et al.
        Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking With Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A Light for Pediatric Keratoconus: Ten-Year Results.
        Cornea. 2018; 37: 560-566
        • Ortiz-Toquero S.
        • Perez S.
        • Rodriguez G.
        • de Juan V.
        • Mayo-Iscar A.
        • Martin R.
        The influence of the refractive correction on the vision-related quality of life in keratoconus patients.
        Qual Life Res. 2016; 25: 1043-1051
        • Cingu A.K.
        • Bez Y.
        • Cinar Y.
        • Turkcu F.M.
        • Yildirim A.
        • Sahin A.
        • et al.
        Impact of Collagen Cross-linking on Psychological Distress and Vision and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Keratoconus.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2015; 41: 349-353
        • Tatematsu-Ogawa Y.
        • Yamada M.
        • Kawashima M.
        • Yamazaki Y.
        • Bryce T.
        • Tsubota K.
        The disease burden of keratoconus in patients' lives: comparisons to a Japanese normative sample.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2008; 34: 13-16
        • Kumar P.
        • Bandela P.K.
        • Bharadwaj S.R.
        Do visual performance and optical quality vary across different contact lens correction modalities in keratoconus?.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020; 43: 568-576
        • Levit A.
        • Benwell M.
        • Evans B.J.W.
        Randomised controlled trial of corneal vs. scleral rigid gas permeable contact lenses for keratoconus and other ectatic corneal disorders.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020; 43: 543-552
        • Mukhtar S.
        • Ambati B.K.
        Pediatric keratoconus: a review of the literature.
        Int Ophthalmol. 2018; 38: 2257-2266
        • Belin M.W.
        • Duncan J.K.
        Keratoconus: The ABCD Grading System.
        Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2016; 233: 701-707
        • Vinciguerra R.
        • Belin M.W.
        • Borgia A.
        • Piscopo R.
        • Montericcio A.
        • Confalonieri F.
        • et al.
        Evaluating keratoconus progression prior to crosslinking: maximum keratometry vs the ABCD grading system.
        J Cataract Refract Surg. 2021; 47: 33-39
        • Belin M.W.
        Keratoconus and Ectatic Disease: Evolving Criteria for Diagnosis.
        Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2020; 237: 740-744
        • Belin MichaelW
        • Kundu G.
        • Shetty N.
        • Gupta K.
        • Mullick R.
        • Thakur P.
        ABCD: A new classification for keratoconus.
        Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020; 68: 2831
        • Hashemi H.
        • Khabazkhoob M.
        • Pakzad R.
        • Bakhshi S.
        • Ostadimoghaddam H.
        • Asaharlous A.
        • et al.
        Pentacam Accuracy in Discriminating Keratoconus From Normal Corneas: A Diagnostic Evaluation Study.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2019; 45: 46-50
        • Motlagh M.N.
        • et al.
        Pentacam(R) Corneal Tomography for Screening of Refractive Surgery Candidates: A Review of the Literature, Part I.
        Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2019; 8: 177-203
        • Hashemi H.
        • Yekta AbbasAli
        • Heydarian S.
        • Ostadimoghaddam H.
        • Aghamirsalim M.
        • Derakhshan A.
        • et al.
        Heritability of pachymetric indices using Pentacam Scheimflug imaging.
        Br J Ophthalmol. 2020; 104: 985-988
        • Sabti S.
        • Tappeiner C.
        • Frueh B.E.
        Corneal Cross-Linking in a 4-Year-Old Child With Keratoconus and Down Syndrome.
        Cornea. 2015; 34: 1157-1160
        • Kankariya VardhamanP
        • Kymionis GeorgeD
        • Diakonis VasiliosF
        • Yoo SoniaH
        Management of pediatric keratoconus - evolving role of corneal collagen cross-linking: an update.
        Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013; 61: 435
        • Wise S.
        • Diaz C.
        • Termote K.
        • Dubord P.J.
        • McCarthy M.
        • Yeung S.N.
        Corneal Cross-Linking in Pediatric Patients With Progressive Keratoconus.
        Cornea. 2016; 35: 1441-1443
        • Buzzonetti L.
        • Bohringer D.
        • Liskova P.
        • Lang S.
        • Valente P.
        Keratoconus in Children: A Literature Review.
        Cornea. 2020; 39: 1592-1598
        • McKean-Cowdin R.
        • Varma R.
        • Cotter S.A.
        • Tarczy-Hornoch K.
        • Borchert M.S.
        • Lin J.H.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies.
        Ophthalmology. 2011; 118: 1974-1981
        • Fozailoff A.
        • Tarczy-Hornoch K.
        • Cotter S.
        • Wen G.e.
        • Lin J.
        • Borchert M.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of astigmatism in 6- to 72-month-old African American and Hispanic children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study.
        Ophthalmology. 2011; 118: 284-293