Italian translation, validation, and repeatability of Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) Questionnaire

  • Alessio Facchin
    Corresponding author at: Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza dell’ateneo nuovo 1, 20126 Milano, Italy.
    Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy

    Institute of Research and Studies in Optics and Optometry, Vinci, Italy
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  • Laura Boccardo
    Institute of Research and Studies in Optics and Optometry, Vinci, Italy

    School of Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences (Optics and Optometry), University of Florence, Italy
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Published:August 11, 2021DOI:



      The assessment of symptoms of dry eye disease using a questionnaire is an effective and simple method of quantifying symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate the SPEED questionnaire and adapt it for the Italian language and verify the main psychometric performance of the translated version, including repeatability and agreement.


      The SPEED questionnaire was translated into Italian following a standard methodology. The resulting questionnaire was administered to 206 adult participants in order to perform a validation analysis. A subgroup of 82 participants was retested after one week to give a repeatability and agreement assessment.


      Internal consistency showed an alpha of 0.852 (95% CI 0.818–0.881) and no unnecessary items. The factor analysis showed a saturation for three main factors related to (i) Dryness and Soreness, (ii) Fatigue, and (iii) Burning. Repeatability was high, with a CCC of 0.896 (95% CI 0.844–0.931). Agreement analysis showed no significant bias between sessions and an interval of agreement of 5 points for SPEED score.


      The translation and adaptation of the SPEED questionnaire for the Italian language have demonstrated good psychometric properties for the translated questionnaire, confirming and expanding the original psychometric characteristics. Consequently, the SPEED questionnaire could be used to measure the presence of symptoms of dry eye quantitatively.


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