Advertisement

University students fail to comply with contact lens care

  • Diego García-Ayuso
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Laboratorio de Oftalmología Experimental, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria-Virgen de la Arrixaca, Edificio LAIB Planta 5ª, Carretera Buenavista s/n, 30120, El Palmar, Murcia, Spain.
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain

    Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain

    Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Esmeralda Moya-Rodríguez
    Affiliations
    Consejería de Educación y Cultura, Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Francisco J. Valiente-Soriano
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain

    Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain

    Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Caridad Galindo-Romero
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain

    Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain

    Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Paloma Sobrado-Calvo
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain

    Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain

    Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Johnny Di Pierdomenico
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain

    Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain

    Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 27, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2021.01.006

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To assess the level of compliance related to contact lens (CL) wear in university students in Spain.

      Methods

      A web-based questionnaire was distributed to university students through their representatives to assess general demographic information, questions related to CL history, level of compliance with CL care and CL-related complications.

      Results

      A total of 266 participants with an average age of 22 (±4.5) years completed the online questionnaire. Only 39.1 % of respondents indicated that they always replace their CLs within the recommended schedule, and 63.6 % indicated that they usually wear their CLs more hours per day than recommended. Surprisingly, 64.9 % of participants reported that they had not been informed about the potential risks of CL wear, and only 20 % indicated that they always comply with follow-up visits, whereas 42.1 % of respondents expose their CL to water frequently. Participants who received proper CL education were more likely to attend aftercare visits (X2(2) = 9.104, p < 0.05). Participants with a longer history of CL wear had a greater tendency to expose their CLs to water (X2(6) = 18.768, p < 0.05) and suffer CL-related problems (X2(3) = 12.183, p < 0.05). There was also a relationship between an increased frequency of CL exposure to water and an increased tendency to experience CL-related adverse events (X2(2) = 10.864, p < 0.05).

      Conclusion

      A relatively high percentage of university CL wearers displayed some degree of non-compliance, which emphasises the importance of providing accurate and comprehensive CL care guidelines and attending aftercare visits to minimise potential CL-related complications. CL wearers should be provided with clear and unambiguous guidelines to avoid any exposure of CL’s and CL cases to water.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Chen E.Y.
        • Myung Lee E.
        • Loc-Nguyen A.
        • Frank L.A.
        • Parsons Malloy J.
        • Weissman B.A.
        Value of routine evaluation in asymptomatic soft contact lens wearers.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020; 43: 484-488
        • Forister J.F.
        • Forister E.F.
        • Yeung K.K.
        • Ye P.
        • Chung M.Y.
        • Tsui A.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2009; 35: 176-180
        • Wu Y.T.
        • Ho A.
        • Naduvilath T.
        • Lim C.
        • Carnt N.
        • Keay L.J.
        • et al.
        The risk of vision loss in contact lens wear and following LASIK.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2020; 40: 241-248
        • Efron N.
        Contact lens complications.
        Elsevier, Philadelphia2018
        • Sauer A.
        • Meyer N.
        • Bourcier T.
        K. French Study Group for Contact Lens-Related Microbial, Risk Factors for Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis: A Case-Control Multicenter Study.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2016; 42: 158-162
        • Keay L.
        • Edwards K.
        • Naduvilath T.
        • Taylor H.R.
        • Snibson G.R.
        • Forde K.
        • et al.
        Microbial keratitis predisposing factors and morbidity.
        Ophthalmology. 2006; 113: 109-116
        • Wu Y.T.
        • Willcox M.
        • Zhu H.
        • Stapleton F.
        Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: a review.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015; 38: 307-316
        • Robertson D.M.
        • Cavanagh H.D.
        Non-compliance with contact lens wear and care practices: a comparative analysis.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2011; 88: 1402-1408
        • Keay L.
        • Stapleton F.
        Development and evaluation of evidence-based guidelines on contact lens-related microbial keratitis.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2008; 31: 3-12
        • Nichols J.J.
        • Willcox M.D.
        • Bron A.J.
        • Belmonte C.
        • Ciolino J.B.
        • Craig J.P.
        • et al.
        The TFOS international workshop on contact lens discomfort: executive summary.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: TFOS7-TFOS13
        • Pucker A.D.
        • Jones-Jordan L.A.
        • Marx S.
        • Powell D.R.
        • Kwan J.T.
        • Srinivasan S.
        • et al.
        G. Contact Lens Assessment of Symptomatic Subjects Study, Clinical factors associated with contact lens dropout.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2019; 42: 318-324
        • Hickson-Curran S.
        • Chalmers R.L.
        • Riley C.
        Patient attitudes and behavior regarding hygiene and replacement of soft contact lenses and storage cases.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011; 34: 207-215
        • Rueff E.M.
        • Wolfe J.
        • Bailey M.D.
        A study of contact lens compliance in a non-clinical setting.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2019; 42: 557-561
        • Jun J.
        • Zhiwen B.
        • Feifu W.
        • Lili L.
        • Fan L.
        Level of compliance in Orthokeratology.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2018; 44: 330-334
        • Sapkota K.
        Level of compliance in contact lens wearing medical doctors in Nepal.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015; 38: 456-460
        • Dumbleton K.A.
        • Richter D.
        • Woods C.A.
        • Aakre B.M.
        • Plowright A.
        • Morgan P.B.
        • et al.
        A multi-country assessment of compliance with daily disposable contact lens wear.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013; 36: 304-312
        • Efron N.
        • Morgan P.B.
        Rethinking contact lens aftercare.
        Clin Exp Optom. 2017; 100: 411-431
        • Fogel J.
        • Zidile C.
        Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices.
        Optometry. 2008; 79: 23-35
        • Chalmers R.L.
        • Wagner H.
        • Kinoshita B.
        • Sorbara L.
        • Mitchell G.L.
        • Lam D.
        • et al.
        Is purchasing lenses from the prescriber associated with better habits among soft contact lens wearers?.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2016; 39: 435-441
        • Morgan P.B.
        • Efron N.
        • Toshida H.
        • Nichols J.J.
        An international analysis of contact lens compliance.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011; 34: 223-228
        • Jones L.
        • Walsh K.
        • Willcox M.
        • Morgan P.
        • Nichols J.
        The COVID-19 pandemic: important considerations for contact lens practitioners.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020; 43: 196-203
        • Garcia-Ayuso D.
        • Escamez-Torrecilla M.
        • Galindo-Romero C.
        • Valiente-Soriano F.J.
        • Moya-Rodriguez E.
        • Sobrado-Calvo P.
        • et al.
        Influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on contact lens wear in Spain.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020;
        • Bokolo A.J.
        Exploring the adoption of telemedicine and virtual software for care of outpatients during and after COVID-19 pandemic.
        Ir J Med Sci. 2020;
        • Vianya-Estopa M.
        • Wolffsohn J.S.
        • Beukes E.
        • Trott M.
        • Smith L.
        • Allen P.M.
        Soft contact lens wearers’ compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020;
        • Bakkar M.M.
        • Alzghoul E.A.
        Assessment of compliance with contact lens wear and care among university-based population in Jordan.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020; 43: 395-401
        • Zhu Q.
        • Yang B.
        • Deng N.
        • Li Y.
        • Wang T.
        • Qi H.
        • et al.
        The use of contact lenses among university students in Chengdu: knowledge and practice of contact lens wearers.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2018; 41: 229-233
        • Zimmerman A.B.
        • Richdale K.
        • Mitchell G.L.
        • Kinoshita B.T.
        • Lam D.Y.
        • Wagner H.
        • et al.
        Water exposure is a common risk behavior among Soft and gas-permeable contact Lens wearers.
        Cornea. 2017; 36: 995-1001
        • Dumbleton K.A.
        • Woods C.A.
        • Jones L.W.
        • Fonn D.
        The relationship between compliance with lens replacement and contact lens-related problems in silicone hydrogel wearers.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011; 34: 216-222
        • Arshad M.
        • Carnt N.
        • Tan J.
        • Ekkeshis I.
        • Stapleton F.
        Water exposure and the risk of contact lens-related disease.
        Cornea. 2019; 38: 791-797
        • Carnt N.
        • Stapleton F.
        Strategies for the prevention of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2016; 36: 77-92
        • de Lacerda A.G.
        • Lira M.
        Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review of biology, pathophysiology and epidemiology.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2020;
        • Hassan F.
        • Bhatti A.
        • Desai R.
        • Barua A.
        Analysis from a year of increased cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a large teaching hospital in the UK.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2019; 42: 506-511
        • Stapleton F.
        Contact lens-related corneal infection in Australia.
        Clin Exp Optom. 2020; 103: 408-417
        • Kilvington S.
        • Gray T.
        • Dart J.
        • Morlet N.
        • Beeching J.R.
        • Frazer D.G.
        • et al.
        Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004; 45: 165-169
        • Jain R.
        • Garg P.
        • Motukupally S.R.
        • Geary M.B.
        Clinico-microbiological review of non-contact-lens-associated acanthamoeba keratitis.
        Semin Ophthalmol. 2015; 30: 281-288
        • Randag A.C.
        • van Rooij J.
        • van Goor A.T.
        • Verkerk S.
        • Wisse R.P.L.
        • Saelens I.E.Y.
        • et al.
        The rising incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis: a 7-year nationwide survey and clinical assessment of risk factors and functional outcomes.
        PLoS One. 2019; 14: e0222092
        • Fonn D.
        • Jones L.
        Hand hygiene is linked to microbial keratitis and corneal inflammatory events.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2019; 42: 132-135
        • Taher E.E.
        • Meabed E.M.H.
        • Abdallah I.
        • Abdel Wahed W.Y.
        Acanthamoeba keratitis in noncompliant soft contact lenses users: genotyping and risk factors, a study from Cairo, Egypt.
        J Infect Public Health. 2018; 11: 377-383
        • Stapleton F.
        • Naduvilath T.
        • Keay L.
        • Radford C.
        • Dart J.
        • Edwards K.
        • et al.
        Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens wear.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0181343
        • Yung A.M.
        • Boost M.V.
        • Cho P.
        • Yap M.
        The effect of a compliance enhancement strategy (self-review) on the level of lens care compliance and contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories.
        Clin Exp Optom. 2007; 90: 190-202
        • Wu Y.
        • Carnt N.
        • Stapleton F.
        Contact lens user profile, attitudes and level of compliance to lens care.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010; 33: 183-188
        • Wagner H.
        • Richdale K.
        • Mitchell G.L.
        • Lam D.Y.
        • Jansen M.E.
        • Kinoshita B.T.
        • et al.
        Age, behavior, environment, and health factors in the soft contact lens risk survey.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2014; 91: 252-261
        • Vianya-Estopa M.
        • Garcia-Porta N.
        • Pinero D.P.
        • Simo Mannion L.
        • Beukes E.W.
        • Wolffsohn J.S.
        • et al.
        Contact lens wear and care in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020;
        • Mingo-Botin D.
        • Zamora J.
        • Arnalich-Montiel F.
        • Munoz-Negrete F.J.
        Characteristics, Behaviors, and Awareness of Contact Lens Wearers Purchasing Lenses Over the Internet.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2020; 46: 208-213
        • Roberts A.
        • Kaye A.E.
        • Kaye R.A.
        • Tu K.
        • Kaye S.B.
        Informed consent and medical devices: the case of the contact lens.
        Br J Ophthalmol. 2005; 89: 782-783
        • Walline J.J.
        • Holden B.A.
        • Bullimore M.A.
        • Rah M.J.
        • Asbell P.A.
        • Barr J.T.
        • et al.
        The current state of corneal reshaping.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2005; 31: 209-214
        • White P.
        • Cho P.
        Legal issues in contact lens practice with special reference to the practice of orthokeratology.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2003; 23: 151-161
        • Cho P.
        • Cheng S.Y.
        • Chan W.Y.
        • Yip W.K.
        Soft contact lens cleaning: rub or no-rub?.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009; 29: 49-57
        • Cho P.
        • Poon H.Y.
        • Chen C.C.
        • Yuon L.T.
        To rub or not to rub? - effective rigid contact lens cleaning.
        Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2020; 40: 17-23
        • Gyawali R.
        • Nestha Mohamed F.
        • Bist J.
        • Kandel H.
        • Marasini S.
        • Khadka J.
        Compliance and hygiene behaviour among soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives.
        Clin Exp Optom. 2014; 97: 43-47
        • Sulley A.
        • Young G.
        • Hunt C.
        Factors in the success of new contact lens wearers.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2017; 40: 15-24