Research Article| Volume 44, ISSUE 3, 101334, June 2021

Download started.


Impact of a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative on contact lens wettability



      To investigate the interaction of a novel low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative containing hydrophobic groups with soft contact lenses and its effect on lens hydrophilicity compared with a conventional form of hyaluronic acid.


      This investigation studied the uptake of fluorescently-labelled hyaluronic acid and a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative to four types of contact lenses using fluorescent microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Further, the four lens types were used to compare efficacy in improving hydrophilicity, as well as maintenance of contact angle measurements, in commercially available multipurpose solutions that contained either hyaluronic acid, the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative, or an alternative wetting agent.


      The low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative was found to sorb more readily to silicone hydrogel lenses and exhibit a greater accumulation over time than conventional hyaluronic acid. Multipurpose solutions containing the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative showed an increase in lens hydrophilicity through decreases in contact angle measurements when compared with those obtained from lenses treated with multipurpose solutions containing conventional hyaluronic acid or alternative wetting agents. This increase in lens hydrophilicity associated with the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative was also maintained over multiple cycles in phosphate buffered saline, while alternative solutions with conventional hyaluronic acid did not.


      Overall, lens treatment using a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative-based solution lead to improved in vitro lens hydrophilicity.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Nichols J.J.
        • Willcox M.D.
        • Bron A.J.
        • Belmonte C.
        • Ciolino J.B.
        • Craig J.P.
        • et al.
        The TFOS international workshop on contact Lens discomfort: executive summary.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: TFOS7-TFOS13
        • Begley C.G.
        • Caffery B.
        • Nichols K.K.
        • Chalmers R.
        Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2000; 77: 40-46
        • Riley C.
        • Young G.
        • Chalmers R.
        Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a).
        Eye Contact Lens. 2006; 32: 281-286
        • Dumbleton K.
        • Woods C.A.
        • Jones L.W.
        • Fonn D.
        The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2013; 39: 93-99
        • Markoulli M.
        • Kolanu S.
        Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions.
        Clin Optom. 2017; 9: 41-48
        • Keir N.
        • Jones L.
        Wettability and silicone hydrogel lenses: a review.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2013; 39: 100-108
        • Simmons P.A.
        • Donshik P.C.
        • Kelly W.F.
        • Vehige J.G.
        Conditioning of hydrogel lenses by a multipurpose solution containing an ocular lubricant.
        CLAO J. 2001; 27: 192-194
        • Tonge S.
        • Jones L.
        • Goodall S.
        • Tighe B.
        The ex vivo wettability of soft contact lenses.
        Curr Eye Res. 2001; 23: 51-59
        • Stiegemeier M.J.
        • Friederichs G.J.
        • Hughes J.L.
        • Larsen S.
        • Movic W.
        • Potter W.B.
        Clinical evaluation of a new multi-purpose disinfecting solution in symptomatic contact lens wearers.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006; 29: 143-151
        • Kitamata-Wong B.
        • Yuen T.
        • Li W.
        • Svitova T.
        • Zhou Y.
        • Lin M.C.
        Effects of lens-care solutions on hydrogel Lens performance.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2017; 94: 1036-1046
        • Rah M.J.
        A review of hyaluronan and its ophthalmic applications.
        Optometry. 2011; 82: 38-43
        • Balazs E.A.
        Hyaluronan as an ophthalmic viscoelastic device.
        Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2008; 9: 236-238
        • Allegra L.
        • Della Patrona S.
        • Petrigni G.
        Hyaluronic acid : perspectives in lung diseases.
        Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012; 207: 385-401
        • Salwowska N.M.
        • Bebenek K.A.
        • Zadlo D.A.
        • Wcislo-Dziadecka D.L.
        Physiochemical properties and application of hyaluronic acid: a systematic review.
        J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016; 15: 520-526
        • Schmidt T.A.
        • Gastelum N.S.
        • Nguyen Q.T.
        • Schumacher B.L.
        • Sah R.L.
        Boundary lubrication of articular cartilage: role of synovial fluid constituents.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2007; 56: 882-891
        • Daniel M.
        Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.
        Wien Med Wochenschr. 2014; 164: 88-94
        • Majd S.E.
        • Kuijer R.
        • Kowitsch A.
        • Groth T.
        • Schmidt T.A.
        • Sharma P.K.
        Both hyaluronan and collagen type II keep proteoglycan 4 (lubricin) at the cartilage surface in a condition that provides low friction during boundary lubrication.
        Langmuir. 2014; 30: 14566-14572
        • Nakamura M.
        • Hikida M.
        • Nakano T.
        • Ito S.
        • Hamano T.
        • Kinoshita S.
        Characterization of water retentive properties of hyaluronan.
        Cornea. 1993; 12: 433-436
        • Papakonstantinou E.
        • Roth M.
        • Karakiulakis G.
        Hyaluronic acid: a key molecule in skin aging.
        Dermatoendocrinol. 2012; 4: 253-258
        • Johnson M.E.
        • Murphy P.J.
        • Boulton M.
        Effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eye.
        Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006; 244: 109-112
        • Stuart J.C.
        • Linn J.G.
        Dilute sodium hyaluronate (Healon) in the treatment of ocular surface disorders.
        Ann Ophthalmol. 1985; 17: 190-192
        • Shimmura S.
        • Ono M.
        • Shinozaki K.
        • Toda I.
        • Takamura E.
        • Mashima Y.
        • et al.
        Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.
        Br J Ophthalmol. 1995; 79: 1007-1011
        • Aragona P.
        • Di Stefano G.
        • Ferreri F.
        • Spinella R.
        • Stilo A.
        Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjogren’s syndrome patients.
        Br J Ophthalmol. 2002; 86: 879-884
        • Johnson M.E.
        • Murphy P.J.
        • Boulton M.
        Carbomer and sodium hyaluronate eyedrops for moderate dry eye treatment.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2008; 85: 750-757
        • She Y.
        • Li J.
        • Xiao B.
        • Lu H.
        • Liu H.
        • Simmons P.A.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a novel artificial tear in the prevention and treatment of dry eye in an animal model.
        J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 31: 525-530
        • Nichols J.J.
        • Lievens C.W.
        • Bloomenstein M.R.
        • Liu H.
        • Simmons P.
        • Vehige J.
        Dual-Polymer Drops, Contact Lens Comfort, and Lid Wiper Epitheliopathy.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2016; 93: 979-986
        • Ang B.C.H.
        • Sng J.J.
        • Wang P.X.H.
        • Htoon H.M.
        • Tong L.H.T.
        Sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 9013
        • Simmons P.A.
        • Vehige J.G.
        Investigating the potential benefits of a new artificial tear formulation combining two polymers.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2017; 11: 1637-1642
        • Mateo Orobia A.J.
        • Saa J.
        • Ollero Lorenzo A.
        • Herreras J.M.
        Combination of hyaluronic acid, carmellose, and osmoprotectants for the treatment of dry eye disease.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2018; 12: 453-461
        • Hamano T.
        • Horimoto K.
        • Lee M.
        • Komemushi S.
        Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops enhance tear film stability.
        Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1996; 40: 62-65
        • Tsubota K.
        • Yamada M.
        Tear evaporation from the ocular surface.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992; 33: 2942-2950
        • Atkins N.
        Overall performance of the Safegel 1 day lens.
        Optician. 2008; 235: 40-43
        • Weeks A.
        • Morrison D.
        • Alauzun J.G.
        • Brook M.A.
        • Jones L.
        • Sheardown H.
        Photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid as an internal wetting agent in model conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses.
        J Biomed Mater Res. 2012; 100: 1972-1982
        • Weeks A.
        • Boone A.
        • Luensmann D.
        • Jones L.
        • Sheardown H.
        The effects of hyaluronic acid incorporated as a wetting agent on lysozyme denaturation in model contact lens materials.
        J Biomater Appl. 2013; 28: 323-333
        • Deng X.
        • Korogiannaki M.
        • Rastegari B.
        • Zhang J.
        • Chen M.
        • Fu Q.
        • et al.
        Click" chemistry-tethered hyaluronic acid-based contact Lens coatings improve Lens wettability and lower protein adsorption.
        ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016; 8: 22064-22073
        • Korogiannaki M.
        • Jones L.
        • Sheardown H.
        Impact of a hyaluronic acid-grafted layer on the surface properties of model silicone hydrogel contact lenses.
        Langmuir. 2019; 35: 950-961
        • Korogiannaki M.
        • Zhang J.
        • Sheardown H.
        Surface modification of model hydrogel contact lenses with hyaluronic acid via thiol-ene “click” chemistry for enhancing surface characteristics.
        J Biomater Appl. 2017; 32: 446-462
        • Scheuer C.A.
        • Fridman K.M.
        • Barniak V.L.
        • Burke S.E.
        • Venkatesh S.
        Retention of conditioning agent hyaluronan on hydrogel contact lenses.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010; 33: S2-6
        • Wright E.A.
        • Payne K.A.
        • Jowitt T.A.
        • Howard M.
        • Morgan P.B.
        • Maldonado-Codina C.
        • et al.
        Preservation of human tear protein structure and function by a novel contact lens multipurpose solution containing protein-stabilizing agents.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2012; 38: 36-42
        • Wygladacz K.A.
        • Hook D.J.
        Visualization of a hyaluronan network on the surface of silicone-hydrogel materials.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2016; 10: 1423-1433
        • Singh A.
        • Li P.
        • Beachley V.
        • McDonnell P.
        • Elisseeff J.H.
        A hyaluronic acid-binding contact lens with enhanced water retention.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015; 38: 79-84
        • Tighe B.J.
        A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2013; 39: 4-12
        • Menzies K.L.
        • Jones L.W.
        Sessile drop contact angle analysis of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel daily disposable and frequent replacement contact lenses.
        Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012; 35: e12-e13
        • Maldonado-Codina C.
        • Morgan P.B.
        In vitro water wettability of silicone hydrogel contact lenses determined using the sessile drop and captive bubble techniques.
        J Biomed Mater Res. 2007; 83: 496-502
        • Rex J.
        • Knowles T.
        • Zhao X.
        • Lemp J.
        • Maissa C.
        • Perry S.S.
        Elemental composition at silicone hydrogel contact Lens surfaces.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2018; 44: S221-S226
        • Lira M.
        • Silva R.
        Effect of Lens care systems on silicone hydrogel contact Lens hydrophobicity.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2017; 43: 89-94
        • Campbell D.
        • Carnell S.M.
        • Eden R.J.
        Applicability of contact angle techniques used in the analysis of contact lenses, part 1: comparative methodologies.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2013; 39: 254-262
        • Maulvi F.A.
        • Soni T.G.
        • Shah D.O.
        Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.
        J Biomat Sci. 2015; 26: 1035-1050
        • Mann A.
        • Tighe B.
        Contact lens interactions with the tear film.
        Exp Eye Res. 2013; 117: 88-98
        • Teichroeb J.H.
        • Forrest J.A.
        • Ngai V.
        • Martin J.W.
        • Jones L.
        • Medley J.
        Imaging protein deposits on contact lens materials.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2008; 85: 1151-1164
        • Holly F.J.
        • Refojo M.F.
        Wettability of hydrogels I. Poly (2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate).
        J Biomed Mater Res. 1975; 9: 315-326
        • Ketelson H.A.
        • Meadows D.L.
        • Stone R.P.
        Dynamic wettability properties of a soft contact lens hydrogel.
        Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005; 40: 1-9
        • Lewis K.B.
        • Ratner B.D.
        Observation of surface rearrangement of polymers using ESCA.
        J Colloid Interface Sci. 1993; 159: 77-85
        • Srinivasan S.
        • Otchere H.
        • Yu M.
        • Yang J.
        • Luensmann D.
        • Jones L.
        Impact of cosmetics on the surface properties of silicone hydrogel contact lenses.
        Eye Contact Lens. 2015; 41: 228-235
        • Jones L.
        • Brennan N.A.
        • González-Méijome J.
        • Lally J.
        • Maldonado-Codina C.
        • Schmidt T.A.
        • et al.
        The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: TFOS37-TFOS70
        • Thai L.C.
        • Tomlinson A.
        • Simmons P.A.
        In vitro and in vivo effects of a lubricant in a contact lens solution.
        Ophthal Physl Opt. 2002; 22: 319-329
        • Lin M.
        • Svitova T.
        Comfort and Tear-Film Stability during Soft Contact Lens Wear: Is Lens-Surface Wettability an Overrated Factor?.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009; 50 (6342-6342)
        • Phan C.-M.
        • Walther H.
        • Smith R.W.
        • Riederer D.
        • Lau C.
        • Osborn Lorenz K.
        • et al.
        Determination of the release of PEG and HPMC from nelfilcon A daily disposable contact lenses using a novel in vitro eye model.
        J Biomat Sci. 2018; 29: 2124-2136